Laravel 11 Many to Many Eloquent Relationship Tutorial - TechvBlogs

Laravel 11 Many to Many Eloquent Relationship Tutorial

In this article, You will learn How to Use Many to Many Eloquent Relationship in Laravel 11.


Smit Pipaliya - Author - TechvBlogs
Smit Pipaliya
 

1 month ago

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In this article, I will elucidate the intricacies of the many-to-many relationship within a Laravel 11 framework. To accomplish this, we shall employ the eloquent method "belongsToMany()" for such relational dynamics.

Within the Laravel ecosystem, the notion of a many-to-many relational construct, as exemplified by the junction between "users" and "roles," delineates a scenario wherein each user may hold sway over myriad roles, while concurrently each role can be attributed to a multitude of users. The intermediary table, christened "role_user," plays a pivotal role in interlinking users and roles, thereby furnishing a conduit for such multifaceted associations. This configuration engenders a pliable system for role allocation, affording users diverse roles while enabling roles to be communally shared amongst a cohort of users. This, in turn, facilitates the streamlined management of permissions and access hierarchies within applications.

The establishment of a many-to-many relationship necessitates the utilization of the "belongsToMany()" method for establishing the requisite connections.

Initiating Migrations:

Our initial step entails the formulation of migrations for the pertinent tables, namely "users," "roles," and "role_user." Additionally, we shall incorporate foreign keys within the "users" and "roles" tables. The ensuing delineations expound upon this endeavor:

Migration for the users table:

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
  
return new class extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Execute the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up(): void
    {
        Schema::create('users', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->id();
            $table->string('name');
            $table->string('email')->unique();
            $table->timestamp('email_verified_at')->nullable();
            $table->string('password');
            $table->rememberToken();
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down(): void
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('users');
    }
};

Migration for the roles table:

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
  
return new class extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Execute the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up(): void
    {
        Schema::create('roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->id();
            $table->string('name');
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }
  
    /**
     * Reverse the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down(): void
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('roles');
    }
};

 Migration for the role_user table:

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
  
return new class extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Execute the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up(): void
    {
        Schema::create('role_user', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->foreignId('user_id')->constrained('users');
            $table->foreignId('role_id')->constrained('roles');
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migration.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down(): void
    {   
        Schema::dropIfExists('role_user');
    }
};

Creation of Models:

Subsequently, we proceed to craft models for the UserRole, and UserRole tables, wherein we shall integrate the belongsToMany() relationship into their respective constructs.

User Model:

namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsToMany;

class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use HasFactory, Notifiable;

    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name',
        'email',
        'password',
    ];

    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for serialization.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password',
        'remember_token',
    ];

    /**
     * Get the attributes that should be cast.
     *
     * @return array
     */
    protected function casts(): array
    {
        return [
            'email_verified_at' => 'datetime',
            'password' => 'hashed',
        ];
    }

    /**
     * The roles that belong to the user.
     */
    public function roles(): BelongsToMany
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class, 'role_user');
    }
}

 Role Model:

namespace App\Models;
  
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsToMany;
  
class Role extends Model
{
    use HasFactory;
  
    /**
     * The users that belong to the role.
     */
    public function users(): BelongsToMany
    {
        return $this->belongsToMany(User::class, 'role_user');
    }
}

 UserRole Model:

namespace App\Models;
  
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
  
class UserRole extends Model
{
    use HasFactory;
      
}

Retrieval of Records:

$user = User::find(1);  
 
dd($user->roles);
$role = Role::find(1);  
 
dd($role->users);

Creation of Records:

$user = User::find(2);  
 
$roleIds = [1, 2];
$user->roles()->attach($roleIds);
$user = User::find(3);  
 
$roleIds = [1, 2];
$user->roles()->sync($roleIds);


$role = Role::find(1);  
 
$userIds = [10, 11];
$role->users()->attach($userIds);
$role = Role::find(2);  
 
$userIds = [10, 11];
$role->users()->sync($userIds);

In conclusion, it is my fervent hope that the elucidation provided herein has afforded you a comprehensive understanding of the intricacies inherent within the realm of many-to-many relationships.

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